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2013届高考历史二轮复习专题:近代中国民族工业的兴起

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living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sewage treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ces s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a tar get compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l-off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o build i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a number of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "Small" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning , construction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farmers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted for 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the dem and still difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . F our water effects still la cks

[课标内容] 1、简述鸦片战争后中国经济结构的变动和近代民族工业兴起的史实,认识近代中国资 本主义产生的历史背景。 2、了解民国时期民族工业曲折发展的主要史实,探讨影响中国资本主义发展的主要因 素。 3、探讨在半殖民地半封建社会条件下,资本主义在中国近代历史发展进程中的地位和 作用。 [教学要求] 第一课 近代中国民族工业的兴起 知道鸦片战争后中国自然经济开始解体的标志和逐渐解体的原因与作用;知道民 族资本主义工业产生的时间、途径与著名企业;知道民族资本主义初步发展的历 基本 史条件、时间和主要表现;认识民族资本主义工业发展的主要特点。 要求 感受民族资本主义经济产生与发展对中国社会发展的意义;体会近代民族工业兴 起的艰难,把人物命运与时代背景结合起来评价历史人物,懂得既要关注自身发 展,又要关注社会发展。 发展 知道洋务运动与民族工业的关系;分析外国资本主义的人侵对中国社会的影响。 要求 近代资本主义的产生和发展是近代中国经济结构最重大也是最深刻的变化,教学 说明 本课时应当在把握本专题总体内容和目标的基础上展开。 第二课 民国年间民族工业的曲折发展 知道民族工业出现短暂春天的原因和主要表现;知道民国时期民族工业曲折发展 基本 的历程;探讨影响中国资本主义发展的主要因素。 要求 体会民族经济兴衰与国家命运紧密相连之道理。 民国时期民族工业的曲折发展包括民国初年、抗战前夕和国民党统治后期三个阶 段,要注意把握这三个阶段民族工业发展的主要特征,在此基础上探讨影响中国 说明 资本主义发展的主要因素。 “币制改革”、“国民经济建设运动”等知识点为学生课外阅读内容。 第三课 近代中国资本主义的历史命运 探讨在半殖民地半封建社会条件下,资本主义在中国近代历史发展进程中 的地位和作用。 基本 要求 体会民族工业的代表人物所表现的自强不息的爱国精神,理解民族独立、 国家统一、政治民主是民族工业健康发展的保证这一道理。 发展 要求 知道中国近代民族工业是在特殊的社会环境中产生与发展起来的,认识近 代中国资本主义产生的历史背景。 本课重点是“探讨资本主义在中国近代历史发展进程中的地位和作用”。 基本史实的掌握是探讨的前提,因此,教学中要重视联系前两课的有关内 容。

说明

compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different f rom the provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal construction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side ntial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇

To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons i bility a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em-ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak poli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote t he supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the co nstruction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural infrastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agricultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. En hance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of agricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in one of the agricultural industrial chain, to break down t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural producti on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel

living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sew age treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ces s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a target compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l -off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o bu ild i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a number of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "Small" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning, constr uction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farmers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted f or 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the demand stil l difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . Four water effects still la cks

[会考标准] 考试要求 知 识 条 目 合格 优秀

二、 ▲1、近代中国民族工业的兴起 近 ①鸦片战争后中国自然经济开始解体的标志及影响 a b 代 ②民族资本主义工业的产生时间、途径与著名企业 a b 中 ③民族资本主义工业发展的主要特点 b c 国 a c ④民族资本主义初步发展的历史条件、时间和著名实业家张謇、 资 本 荣氏兄弟 主 义 的 ▲2、民国时期民族工业的曲折发展 a b 曲 ①民族工业出现短暂春天的原因、时间和主要表现 a c 折 ②国民党统治后期民族工业发展陷入困境的主要原因 发 展 第一课 近代中国民族工业的兴起 知识与能力 简述鸦片战争后中国经济结构的变动和近代民族工业兴起的史实, 认识近代中国资本主 义产生的历史背景。 过程与方法 使学生会用观察法、比较法和阅读法等学习有关问题。 情感、态度与价值观 使学生理解近代民族工业兴起的艰难, 让学生体会到个人的命运与国家的命运是紧密地 联系在一起的。作为新世纪的青年,既要关注自身发展,又要关注社会发展,要培养学生的 爱国主义情感 教学重点:近代民族工业兴起的背景及意义。 教学难点: 自然经济的逐渐解体与近代民族工业兴起的关系; 初创时期的民族工业多集中于 轻工业的原因。 一、鸦片战争后中国经济结构的变动 1、鸦片战争前的中国社会经济 中国以自给自足的自然经济占主导地位。中国商品经济有所发展,资本主义萌芽出现。 2、鸦片战争后中国经济结构的变动——自然经济逐步解体 原因:①商品经济不断发展、国内市场不断扩大是自然经济解体的前提条件。②资本主 义入侵是中国自然经济解体的最直接也是最主要的原因。 表现: 最重要的是自然经济解体:家庭手工棉纺织业开始衰落;中国近代工业产生。 农产品的商品化程度提高; 洋行大量增加; 买办和买办化的商人开始出现; 贸易中心转移。 影响: 中国社会经济结构的变动, 为民族资本主义的发展提供了商品市场和劳动力市场, 促进了近代民族工业的兴起。 外国资本主义入侵→自然经济逐步解体→民族资本主义发展提供了劳动力市场和商品

compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different from the provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal construction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side ntial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇

To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons ibility a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em -ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak poli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote the supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the construction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural inf rastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agricultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. Enhance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of ag ricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in one of the agricultural industrial chain, to break d own t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural product i on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel

living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sewage treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ce s s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a target compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l-off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o build i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a num ber of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "S mall" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning, construction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farm ers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted for 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the demand still difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . Four water effects still la cks

市场。 二、近代民族工业的兴起 1、民族资本主义工业兴起 (1)社会条件 在中国封建社会母胎中孕育着的资本主义萌芽, 虽然尚未形成近代资本主义经济, 但它 毕竟是中国民族资本主义赖以产生的重要社会条件。 外国资本主义的侵略, 加速了中国自然经济的瓦解, 从而为资本主义的产生提供了市场 和劳动力条件;而且外国资本主义创办的在华企业,客观上为中国资本主义企业起了带头、 示范和准备技术力量的作用。 洋务运动中引进西方先进科技、 对人才的培养及民用企业中对私人资本的吸收, 都对稍 后产生的民族资本起过促进作用。 在这些条件逐渐成熟的情况下,19 世纪六七十年代,中国民族资本主义企业诞生了。 (2)概况 时间:19 世纪六七十年代。 地域:东南沿海(历史地理因素)。 历史:唐、宋时期经济重心南移,因此经济基础较好;较早开放 地理:区域优势:交通便利;原料丰富;地形条件优越;气候适宜 政治:统治者为适应外国侵略需要,政策上倾斜,发展资本主义的阻力较小。 代表:方举赞在上海创办的发昌机器厂、陈启沅在南海创办的继昌隆缫丝厂、朱其昂在 天津经营的贻来牟机器磨坊。 途径:一种是一部分中小地主、官僚、买办、商人、华侨等,投资于近代工矿企业;另 一种是部分手工工场开始采用机器生产,转变为近代工矿企业。此外,洋务运动时期洋务派 以“官办” 、 “官督商办” 、 “官商合办”等形式创办的近代民用企业,也促进了近代民族工业 基础的发展。 特点: “先天不足”与“后天畸形” 。 2、初步发展 (1)原因:外国入侵,进一步破坏了自然经济; “实业救国”和“设厂自救”的浪潮;清 政府放宽了对民间设厂的限制; (2)概况 创办人 张謇 荣宗敬、荣德生 周学熙 刘懋赏、冯济川 地址 江苏南通 江苏无锡 河北唐山 山西 企业 大生纱厂 保兴面粉厂 新洋灰公司 保晋矿务公司

同时通过幻灯片打出于张謇、周学熙以及荣氏兄弟相关的资料,加深学生的认识。 (3)近代民族企业的特点:分布地区和部门不平衡;在整个国民经济中占比重较小。 作业:随堂练习 教后记:

compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different from t he provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal constr uction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side nt ial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇

To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons ibili ty a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em-ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak p oli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote the supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the construction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural infrastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agri cultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. Enhance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of agricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in o ne of the agricultural industrial chain, to break down t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural producti on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel

living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sew age treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ces s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a target compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l -off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o bu ild i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a number of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "Small" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning, constr uction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farmers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted f or 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the demand stil l difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . Four water effects still la cks

第二课 民国年间民族工业的曲折发展 知识与能力 了解民国时期民族工业曲折发展的主要史实,探讨影响中国资本主义发展的主要因素。 过程与方法 阅读理解学习法、探讨式学习法 情感、态度与价值观 通过本课学习, 体会民族资本家创业的艰辛及顽强的意志, 培养自己对国家和民族的历 史责任感。 教学重点:民国初年兴办实业潮的原因;民国后期民族工业发展现入困境的原因;影响中国 资本主义发展的因素。 教学难点:民国年间民族工业发展的曲折性;官僚资本对民族资本的控制与压迫; 一、民国初年的兴办实业潮 1、原因 辛亥革命为民族工业发展扫清了一些障碍 中华民国的建立和南京临时政府的推动抵制日货、提倡国货的群众爱国运动 一战爆发,欧洲列强暂时放松了对中国的经济侵略 2、特点 主要发展轻工业,重工业基础极为薄弱,没有形成完整工业体系 一些主要工业部门中,外国资本仍然超过民族资本 自然经济仍占绝对优势 “春天”短暂,昙花一现 3、影响 一方面为新文化运动的产生提供了经济基础, 另一方面使无产阶级队伍壮大, 为中国从 旧民主主义革命向新民主主义革命转变以及中国共产党的成立奠定了阶级基础。 二、抗战前夕民族工业的短暂发展 1、原因: 币制改革 国民经济建设运动的推动 人民反帝爱国运动的影响 2、发展概况:工业各行业普遍出现了较好的发展局面 3、限制因素: 官僚资本的控制(比较详细地介绍一下官僚资本对民族资本的控制情况:四大家族及典 型案例:宋子文侵夺南洋兄弟烟草公司) 帝国主义的压迫 三、国民党统治后期民族工业发展的困境 1、命运:工商企业大量倒闭破产 2、原因 物价猛跌,外贸逆差 恶性通货膨胀政策 官僚资本的压迫 繁重的捐税负担 美国的经济侵略 ☆中国民族资本主义的特点:先天不足,后天畸形 从分布区域看,主要集中在东南沿海;从资金技术上看,难以与外资抗衡;从部门 上看,主要是轻工业;从发展原因看,客观上是列强之间的矛盾为其提供了一定的发展 机会。 ☆中国民族资本主义在近代的地位 从经济上看,民族资本主义工业是一种新的经济因素,其产生和发展有利于社会进步。

compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different from the provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal construction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side ntial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇

To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons ibility a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em -ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak poli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote the supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the construction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural inf rastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agricultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. Enhance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of ag ricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in one of the agricultural industrial chain, to break d own t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural product i on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel

living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sewage treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ce s s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a target compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l-off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o build i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a num ber of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "S mall" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning, construction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farm ers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted for 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the demand still difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . Four water effects still la cks

从政治上看, 它导致民族资产阶级产生, 为维新变法运动和民主革命运动提供了社会基 础,也为新民主主义革命的到来和中国共产党的建立准备了阶级条件。 从思想上看, 中国民族资本主义的产生和发展, 不断地冲击和动摇封建正统思想的统治 地位,为西方资产阶级思想文化的传播提供了社会条件。 从发展趋势上看,民族资本主义工业资金少、规模小,技术力量薄弱,没有形成完整的 工业体系,地区分布不尽合理,在一定程度上依赖外国资本主义、本国封建势力和官僚资本 主义,难以独立发展。 ☆影响中国近代民主资本主义发展的因素有哪些? 推动因素:西方资本主义的冲击 历届政府的鼓励 人民的爱国热情,抵制洋货、提倡国货 实业家自身自强不息的爱国精神……阻碍因素:先天不足、后天畸形 半殖民地半封建的社会环境 近代中国政局的长期动荡…… 作业:随堂练习 教后记:

compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different from t he provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal constr uction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side nt ial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇

To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons ibili ty a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em-ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak p oli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote the supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the construction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural infrastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agri cultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. Enhance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of agricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in o ne of the agricultural industrial chain, to break down t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural producti on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel

living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sew age treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ces s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a target compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l -off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o bu ild i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a number of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "Small" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning, constr uction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farmers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted f or 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the demand stil l difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . Four water effects still la cks

第三课近代中国资本主义的历史命运 知识与能力 探讨在半殖民地半封建社会条件下,资本主义在中国近代历史发展进程中的地位和作 用。 过程与方法 运用图片的能力,加强定量分析能力。 情感、态度与价值观 在民族资本家的创业过程中感受强烈的爱国主义精神风貌。 教学重点:从历史史实中得出中国资本主义的地位和历史命运。 教学难点: “以图阅史”的能力, “古为今用”的能力。

近 代 中 国 资 本 主 义 的

清 政 府

19 世纪六七十年代 19 世纪末

夹缝中产生 初步发展 短暂的春天 短暂发展 受到沉重打击 陷入困境

一、夹缝中求生存 限制中国 机器进口 政府 不正式承认 苛捐杂税

☆《大染坊》主题歌: 总以为泪水早已擦干/心中的滋味却有苦有咸/总以为彩虹就在眼前/我却在风雨中 越走越远/这一场风华望眼好心酸/这一场锦绣年华欲说无言/早知道这命运由天注定/ 我是否还要走万水千山/也许白发已无法遮掩/我还要把等待留在身边/也许爱恨瞬间一 刹/我要把感动留在人间/留在人间/人间

compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different from the provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal construction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side ntial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak poli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote the supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the construction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural inf rastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agricultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. Enhance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of ag ricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in one of the agricultural industrial chain, to break d own t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural product i on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel

曲折发展

府 国 一战期间(1912-1919) 民 政 国民政府前期(1927-1936) 府 北 抗战时期(1937-1945) 洋 政 抗战胜利后(1946-1949)

封 建 势 力 军 阀 政 府 官 僚 资 本 主 义

外 国 侵 略 者

倾销商品 掠夺原料

侵华战争

中 国 民 族 工 业

大举内债 滥发纸币 直接投资 加入官股 收买、敲诈 甚至没收

不平等条约

To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons ibility a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em -ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sewage treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ce s s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a target compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l-off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o build i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a num ber of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "S mall" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning, construction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farm ers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted for 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the demand still difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . Four water effects still la cks

由中国近代社会性质决定的

封建主义 依 勾 结 民族 资本主义 官僚 资本主义 附

结 赖 勾 依 外国 资本主义

夹缝中生存,由于受剥削、压制而日益萎缩 二、在斗争中求发展 1、特点:双重性——革命性和妥协性 由中国近代社会性质决定的

民 族 资 本 主 义 企 业

压制束缚

革命性

本 国 封 建 主 义

外 国 资 本 主 义

依 赖 妥协性 说明:民族资产阶级不能 领导中国革命取得胜利

2、斗争原因 帝国主义、封建主义、官僚资本主义的压迫严重阻碍民族工业的发展; 为了民族资产阶级和中华民族的利益。 3、斗争事例 济南惨案后,全国反日会通过了抵制日货的决议; 九一八事变后,上海银行、钱业两公会致电国民政府,要求团结御侮; 一二八事变后,民族资产阶级捐款捐物,支持十九路军抗战; 长城抗战爆发后,各地工商界人士开展捐款购机运动。 ☆中国民族资本主义的特点:先天不足,后天畸形 从分布区域看,主要集中在东南沿海;从资金技术上看,难以与外资抗衡;从部门 上看,主要是轻工业;从发展原因看,客观上是列强之间的矛盾为其提供了一定的发展 机会。 ☆中国民族资本主义在近代的地位
compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different from t he provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal constr uction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side nt ial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇 To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons ibili ty a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em-ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak p oli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote the supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the construction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural infrastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agri cultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. Enhance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of agricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in o ne of the agricultural industrial chain, to break down t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural producti on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel

living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sew age treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ces s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a target compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l -off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o bu ild i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a number of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "Small" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning, constr uction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farmers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted f or 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the demand stil l difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . Four water effects still la cks

从经济上看,民族资本主义工业是一种新的经济因素,其产生和发展有利于社会进步。 从政治上看, 它导致民族资产阶级产生, 为维新变法运动和民主革命运动提供了社会基 础,也为新民主主义革命的到来和中国共产党的建立准备了阶级条件。 从思想上看, 中国民族资本主义的产生和发展, 不断地冲击和动摇封建正统思想的统治 地位,为西方资产阶级思想文化的传播提供了社会条件。 从发展趋势上看,民族资本主义工业资金少、规模小,技术力量薄弱,没有形成完整的 工业体系,地区分布不尽合理,在一定程度上依赖外国资本主义、本国封建势力和官僚资本 主义,难以独立发展。 ☆民族资本主义的产生对中国社会的影响 使中国的经济结构发生变化:鸦片战争前,中国是自给自足的封建经济占主导地位。鸦 片战争后,外国资本主义入侵,使封建经济日益解体。中国民族资本主义产生后,中国的经 济结构中出现了新的成份,促进了自然经济的进一步解体。 使中国的阶级结构发生变化: 中国民族资产阶级诞生并得到发展, 无产阶级队伍发展壮 大。 促进了民主思想的传播和民主革命的发展: 在近代工业引进西方自然科学的同时, 西方 的社会科学知识也随之引入,对促进民主思想的传播起了拓荒的作用。在此基础上,十九世 纪七八十年代,中国出现了早期的维新派,他们主张不仅学习西方科学技术,更应该学习西 方先进的思想文化和政治制度, 为以后的戊戌变法奠定了思想基础。 随着民族资本主义的初 步发展,中国民族资产阶级的力量也逐渐成长起来,形成一种新的政治力量,并开始登上政 治舞台。而这种民族资本主义工业的发展,成为民族资产阶级走向政治舞台的物质基础。 民族资产阶级按政治地位经济力量不同,可分为不同的阶层:第一,民族资产阶级上层 和帝国主义、 封建主义有着密切地关系。 他们不是封建政权中的当权者, 对封建制度有抵制; 他们有依赖帝国主义的一面,但与帝国主义也有矛盾。一般来说,他们欢迎资产阶级民主革 命,期望建立资产阶级专政的资本主义制度;但又害怕暴力革命损害其自身利益,希望走君 主立宪的道路。爱国图强的戊戌变法就反映了他们的愿望。第二,民族资产阶级的中下层。 主要是中小资本家,他们所经营的近代企业规模小,资金不足,经济力量比较脆弱,政治上 缺乏有力的靠山。他们同帝国主义、封建主义联系较少,且常常感受到帝国主义、封建主义 的压迫,因此,民族资产阶级的中下层有强烈的反帝反封建的革命要求,希望通过革命的方 式建立一个资产阶级共和国。辛亥革命便是由他们发动和领导的。 ☆影响中国近代民族工业发展的因素有哪些? 推动民族工业发展的因素:(1)西方列强的侵略,在给中华民族带来沉重灾难的同时, 也不断地冲击着中国社会的生产方式和思想观念, 分解着中国自给自足的封建经济, 客观上 为民族工业的兴起和发展提供了某些条件和可能。(2)由于时代潮流的冲击和巩固统治的需 要,清末至民国历届政府都鼓励兴办实业。(3)中国人民反帝爱国热情不断高涨,使“实业 救国”具有日益广泛的社会基础,特别是抵制洋货,提倡国货运动不断兴起,有力地推动了 民族工业的发展。(4)实业家们自强不息的爱国精神是支撑近代民族工业曲折发展的动力和

compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different from the provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal construction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side ntial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇

To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons ibility a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em -ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak poli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote the supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the construction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural inf rastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agricultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. Enhance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of ag ricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in one of the agricultural industrial chain, to break d own t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural product i on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel

living standards, poor farmers in les s than com plete eliminati on of 46 00 Yua n, 894 9, 190 08. "Five waters r ule": the County investe d 2.16 9 billi on y uan, similar counti es line the city' s first complete t he 42 km of sew age pi pe netw ork constr uction, completi on rate ranke d first in the city, w on the provincial r ural sewage treatment w ork better; key polluti on sour ce s s uch as el ectroplating, papermaking, chemical industry management through verificati on a nd a cceptance of the muni cipal g overnment, t he County removed Black a nd odorous River, River waste, beginning of river e col ogical rest oration effects. "Three modified a split" as pects : County total demoliti on ill egal area up 2.75 9 million square meters, complete d City is sue d annual task of 153%, s plit against area ranking city se cond; compl eted "three modified" area 4.8 46 million s quare meters, com pleted City i ssue d annua l task of 403%, ranki ng city thir d, whi ch vil lage in the a target compl eted total city ra nking first; County Gover nment was named city level "three modified a s plit" work adva nce d. T hese a chiev ements are hard w on a nd s hould be appreciate d. H owever, we are fully aware, t he ne w peri od, a nd w ork in t he countryside a nd t he envir onme nt facing hig her sta ndards and requirements, provi ncial party Committee offe red to hig h level build a com prehe nsive wel l-off s ociety goal re quire s "no filth, dirty envir onme nt illegal buildi ngs, i nto a well -off"; muni cipal party Committee als o pr oposes t o build i nto the w ell-off benchmark goal s of the city. Compare d with the superi or claim, "South Gate of XX beautiful" goal, my County "San Nong" and e nvironme nt there are a num ber of weaknesse s and gaps, highlig hted in t he following five as pects : first, agricult ure remaine d "low" pattern. "Low" is refle cted in t he quality and low; s hort, value added of the industry chai n is low ; 123 fusion yield l ow empl oyee age, l ow qualit y. "S mall" is reflected in smaller, spe cialize d cooperatives throughout t he County t here were 3, 396, but on the scal e of too little. "San" is refle cted in producti on, ma nagement, s ervice s, de centralize d, centralize d, standardiz ed, brand, information and organizati onal l evel is not high. Second, the countryside is still i n "dirty" phase . "Dirty" is dirty of rural sanitati on sit uation has not cha nged. "Chaos" is a village in rural housing construction planning, construction of di sorder, no drawi ngs, no constructi on, no vetting "four no" phenomenon, heap lyi ng there. " Bad" is the weak rural ba se, village g overna nce i s poor. T hirdly, farm ers continued t o be "pers istent" look. "Ol d" is aging, rural la bor for ce accounted for 70% over the age of 50. "Big" is that the reform meas ures ground resistance, s uch as the transa ctions of property rights, l and re pla cement; public s ervice supply gap, r ural education, health car e, pe nsi ons a nd other s ervices can not meet the demand still difficult for poverty alleviati on, w ith empha sis on poverty alleviation and 191. "Har d" is a "peasa nts, pea sants . Four water effects still la cks

力量的源泉。 阻碍近代民族工业发展的因素:(1)先天不足。与西方资本主义发展相比,中国近代民 族工业缺乏资本、人才、技术、市场和思想观念的准备。(2)半殖民地半封建的社会环境, 帝国主义、 封建主义和官僚资本主义的压迫和束缚, 这是阻碍近代民族工业发展的主要因素。 (3)后天畸形。由于先天不足,使民族工业资金少,规模小,技术力量薄弱,因而投资方向 和发展主要在轻工业领域,重工业基础薄弱,而且主要分布在沿海和通商口岸,这种工业结 构和地区分布的失衡使民族工业呈畸形发展,未能形成独立完整的工业体系。(4)近代中国 政局长期动荡,使民族工业的发展缺乏稳定的社会环境。 作业:随堂练习 教后记:

compell ing." Althoug h the "five water treatment" a lot, w ork very har d, but the flood of scie ntific e noug h, before the treatm ent a nd water quality improveme nt after the treatment effect is not obvious, county-wi de focus on river st ill largely inferior five wate r, swimming t he River coul d not be f ound. Five i s "three to split" task still l ies a head. Noti ce of st ock there, ne w constr uction di d not rece ive timely treatment every year (such a s ancestral hall a s unaut hori sed re peated), contrary to t he create d work i s very different from t he provincial a nd munici pal sta ndar ds. M eanw hile, whe n im plementation is not in pla ce, generally only focus on illegal constr uction dem olished, faili ng that s plit that is clear, com bine d dem olition, insufficie nt attention to reconstructi on of old re side nt ial areas , urban village s, s hanty tow ns a nd promote poor. 成 完 次 一 积 面 全 法 层 斜 用 采 续 连 。 润 湿 水 时 同 净 干 理 清 污 上 物 杂 的 内 查 检 行 进 等 筋 钢 板 模 、 架 支 对 应 , 前 土 凝 混 筑 浇

To s olve the se pr oblem s, we must enhance t he se nse of respons ibili ty a nd urgency, i nsist on probl em-ori ented, to take strong measure s, efforts to make up the

"three agricult ure" and "five water treatment", "three to split a" s hort Board, construction of comprehensive safeguards, "Sout h Gate of XX bea utiful" goal of realizi ng. II, and preci sion Shi policy, a nd manpow er playing good "thre e agricultural" work pr otracted "three agri cult ural" work is do economic s oci al devel opme nt the work of base d, county level s the s ector t o accordi ng to "base d agricultural, a nd a nd manpow er rural, a nd development farmers" of requirement s, insi sted agri cultural r ural base d status not s hake, i nsisted hui nong kulak p oli cy not weake ned, insi sted reform innovation test not stop, efforts created new era "three agri cultural" w ork new s ituation. (A) to make agriculture m ore. To establi sh the concept of agriculture ar ound the people demand, and com prehe nsively promote the supply s ide of agricultur e struct ural reform, strive to enhance the qua lity and efficiency of agriculture a nd competitivenes s. Focus i s on doi ng the four articles . One is the stea dy increase of grain article. Always tig hten the string for food se curit y, "rice bag" catch i n ha nd, t o hold la nd i n the a djustme nt of agricultural pla nting str uct ure in the "red line ." Accel erating the construction of grain ribbons, im proving agri cult ural infrastructure, e nha nce food production capacity, improve t he qualit y of agri cultural product s, effectively "steady increase of grain" and mai ntain "tong ue." Se cond, i ndustry convergence articl e. Enhance the level of concentration, inte nsificati on of agricult ure, creati ng pr oduction, pr oce ssi ng, distri buti on, sales a nd service in o ne of the agricultural industrial chain, to break down t he value chain, impr ove added val ue. Pus hing forwar d "the I nternet + agri cultural" model to impr ove agricultural producti on, ma nagement, a nd service l evel, innovati ng the mode of e -commerce marketing of agricultural product s, solve the difficult pr oblem of sal es of agricultural products . Agriculture a nd t ourism, e ducati on, cult ure, health, pension and other dee p integration, develop leis ure, travel



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